Fate of Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Campylobacter spp. During Fermentation and Drying of Duck Salami
Creating artisanal dry salami products is an increasing trend for charcuterie companies in the United States. These products are required by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service to have a scientifically valid hazard analysis critical control point system addressing relevant biological hazards. The ob-jective of this study was to determine if a manufacturing process could achieve a 5-log reduction of Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Campylobacter spp. for duck salami. Duck trim and pork belly were experi-mentally inoculated, tumbled with 2.5% Beefxide, ground, and mixed with salt (2.5%), cure (NaNO3 and NaNO2), spices, and starter culture. The batter was stuffed into collagen casings (55 mm), fermented (23°C and 95% relative humidity), and dried (12°C and 75% relative humidity) to 44% weight loss. Salamis were vacuum packaged and stored at 23°C (approximately 4 weeks). Pathogen concentrations, pH, and water activity were analyzed throughout production. Final reductions of 7.03, 5.90, and 7.19 log were achieved for Salmonella spp., L. monocytogenes, and Campylobacter spp., respectively. A final pH of 5.11 and final water activity of 0.81 were also achieved. The results of this study indicate that the parameters used to ferment and dry duck salami are able to achieve a 5-log reduction of each pathogen and, thus, validate the safe production of the product.
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